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Center for the History of Microbiology/ASM Archives (CHOMA)

Biological Warfare Collection

The ASM Archives has for some years been collecting materials relating to the scientific and policy aspects of biological warfare. The Center for the History of Microbiology/ASM Archives (CHOMA) Committee is investigating the possibility of expanding this collection in the coming years. For information, contact the Archivist, Jeff Karr, at jkarr@asmusa.org

 

Articles Related to Biological Warfare

Article Index: 

Contact ASM Archivist for additional information

A-C

  • Abramova, F. A., et al. "Pathology of inhalational anthrax in 42 cases from the Sverdlovsk outbreak of 1979." Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences 90:2291-2294, 1993
  • Adams, C. "Pentagon planning biological war games. " Washington Post July 28, 1988
  • Adelman, Kenneth. "Chemical weapons: Restoring the taboo." Orbis, Fall, 1986
  • Advertisement. "Scientologists expose germ warfare testing on American citizens." Washington Post? 1984?
  • Anonymous. "Biological warfare on rabbits." North American Veterinarian 35:291, 1954
  • Anonymous. "Biological warfare." Life 31:7, 43-49, 1951
  • Anonymous. "Biological warfare: Off limits to doctors." Medical World News, July 25, 1969
  • Anonymous. "Japanese use the Chinese as Guinea pigs to test germ warfare." RockyMountain Medical Journal 39:571-72, 1942
  • Anonymous. "Red germ-warfare accusations: Investigations from afar, bad grammar." Newsweek, 41:22-23, 1953
  • Anonymous. "Report says Japan used poison gas." Gazette Telegraph Sept. 18, 1988
  • Anonymous. "The talk of the town." The New Yorker March 16, 1987, 27-28
  • Anonymous. "Vaccinia infection." MMWR 31:50, 683 (1982)
  • Appel, J. G. "The risk factor in shaping U. S. defense policy." Army. Sept. 1985
  • Asinof, R. "Averting genetic warfare." Environmental Action, June 1984

 

  • Barss, P. "Epidemic field investigation as applied to allegations of chemical, biological, or toxin warfare." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Barss, P. "Investigating allegations of chemical, biological, or toxin warfare: A response to five expert commentaries." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Bernhard, R. "Biological warfare: The deadly aerosol." Scientific Research, Jan. 22, 1968
  • Bernstein, B. J. "Churchill's secret biological weapons." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 43:46-50, 1981
  • Bernstein, B. J. "The birth of the U. S. biological warfare program." Scientific American 256:6, 1987
  • Beyer, Lisa. "Coping with chemicals." Time, February 25, 1991
  • Boyle, F. A. "Review of the Diplomacy of Biological Disarmament." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Broad, W. "How Japan germ terror alerted the world." New York Times May 26, 1998
  • Broad, W., and J. Miller. "Scientist at work: Bill Patrick. Once he devised germ weapons; now he defends against them." New York Times, Nov. 3, 1998
  • Brooks, F. R., and D. G. Ebner. "Psychological reactions during chemical warfare training." Military Medicine 148:232-235, 1983
  • Buckley, S. "Comment on Deforest and Zilinskas." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990

  • Carter, B. J., and M. Cammermeyer. "Human responses to simulated chemical warfare training in U. S. Army Reserve personnel." Military Medicine 154:6, 1989
  • Chevrier, M. I. "Review of the Diplomacy of Biological Disarmament." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Chevrier, M. I. "The Biological Weapons Convention: The Third Review Conference." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Chevrier, M. I. "Verifying the unverifiable: Lessons from the Biological Weapons Convention." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Chevrier, M. I. "Weapons of war or ravages of nature? Investigating the use of CBW." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Chevrier, M. I., and J. E. Stern. "Chemical and biological weapons in the Third World." Boston College Third World Law Review 11:45, 1991
  • Ciegler, A. "Mycotoxins: A new class of chemical weapons." NBC Defense andTechnology International 1:2, 1986
  • Cole, L. A. "Response to Zilinskas' Review of Clouds of Secrecy." Politics and the Life Sciences 8:1989
  • Colen, B. D. "Pentagon can administer drugs without troops' consent, FDA says." Philadelphia Inquirer, Jan. 8, 1991
  • Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases, Ft. Bragg. "Epidemics of Q Fever among the troops returning from Italy in the Spring." American Journal of Hygiene 44:1, 1946
  • Cromartie, W. J., et al. "Studies on infections with Bacillus anthracis. 1. A histopathological study of skin lesions produced by B. anthracis in susceptible and resistant animal species. 2. The immunological and tissue damaging properties of extracts prepared from lesions of B. anthracis infection. 3. Chemical and immunological properties of the protective antigen in crude extracts of skin lesion

 

D to H

  • Dasey, C. F. "Medical benefits of the biological defense research program." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Dashiell, T. R. "The need for a defensive biological research program." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Deforest, P. H. "The matrix of biological disarmament: Strategy, law and technology." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Dick, C. "The Soviet chemical and biological warfare threat." Rusi. Mar. 1, 1981
  • Dixon, B. "Psychobiological warfare." New Scientist 104:40, 1984

  • EIR Biological Holocaust Task Force. "How Kissinger and Pugwash destroyed U. S. biodefenses: The need for a 'Biological SDI.'" In "An emergency war plan to fight AIDS and other pandemics."EIR [Executive Intelligence Review] Special Report, Feb. 15, 1986
  • Ember, L. R. "Chemical warfare: Build up or disarm?" C&EN, Dec. 15, 1980
  • Evstigneev, V. I. "The contemporary state of vaccinal prevention of natural smallpox in the armed forces of capitalist states." Military Medicine, Nov. 25, 1992

  • Falk, R. "Dangers to avert." Science 243:552, 1989
  • Falk, R. "Review of the Diplomacy of Biological Disarmament." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Falk, R. A. "Inhibiting reliance on biological weaponry: The role and relevance of international law." American University Journal of International Law and Policy 1:17, 1986
  • Feinsilber, M. "Proof Soviets lied about US warfare." AOL News, Nov. 16, 1998
  • Fothergill, L. D. "Biological warfare and its defense." Military Medicine 123:1, 1958
  • Fox, L. A. "Bacterial warfare." The Military Surgeon 72:3, 1933
  • Freeman, K. "The unfought chemical war." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Dec., 1991
  • Frisina, M. E. "The offensive-defensive distinction in military biological research." Hastings Center Report 20:3, 1990
  • Fullerton, C. S., and R. J. Ursano. "Behavioral and psychological responses to chemical and biological warfare." Military Medicine 155:2, 1990

 

  • Gaylin, W. "Fooling with Mother Nature." Hastings Center Report 20:3, 1990
  • Gee, J. "Confessions of an on-site inspector." Pacific Research 4:4, 1991
  • Geissler, E. "Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention: Comments on the contributions of Marie Isabelle Chevrier and Lynn Marvin Hansen." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Geissler, G. "A global surveillance program might solve several serious problems." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Geissler, G. "Vaccines for peace: An international program of development and use of vaccines against dual-threat agents." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Gibbons, M. "Germ warfare: A chilling possibility." ADVANCE for Medical Laboratory Professionals, Feb. 18, 1991
  • Glasgow, G. "Warfare by germs?" Contemporary Review 181:377-79, 1952
  • Goldblat, J. "Chemical weapons verification." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May 1985
  • Groot, H. "The reinvasion of Colombia by Aedes aegypti: Aspects to remember." American Journal of Tropical medicine and Hygiene 29:3, 1980
  • Guidry, V. A. "Germ warfare game: Army played to learn what it might be like." Washington Star March 9, 1977
  • Gup, Ted. 'The Smithsonian secret: Why an innocent bird study went straight to biological warfare experts at Ft. Detrick." Washington Post Magazine, May 12, 1985

  • Haglund, K. "Biology and terrorism: A new alliance?" MD, Jan. 1987
  • Hahn, T. S. "Restocking America's chemical weapons arsenal." University of ToledoLaw Review 13:4, 1982
  • Hammerschlag, R. "Ethnic weapons." Report of Symposium, American Chemical Society Committee on Chemistry and Public Affairs, April 1, 1974
  • Hanes, J. H. "Agent Orange liability of federal contractors." University of Toledo LawReview 13:4, 1982
  • Hansen, L. M. "Biological and toxin weapons: Arms control, stability, and Western security." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Hanson, E. C. "Biotechnology, international law, and the national interest." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Harruff, R. C. "Chemical-biological warfare in Asia." JAMA 250:4, 1983
  • Hartsell, S. E. "Bacteriological warfare." The Torch 23:4, 1950
  • Heggers, J. "Microbial invasion: The major ally of war (Natural biological warfare)." Military Medicine 143:6, 1978
  • Hepler, J. M. "Biological warfare defense. 3. The State Sanitary Engineer's viewpoint." American Journal of Public Health 42:3, 1952
  • Hersh, S. M. "Germs and gas as weapons." The New Republic, June 7, 1969
  • High-Jones, Martin. "Wickham Steed and German biological warfare research." Intelligence and National Security 7:4, 1992
  • Home, R. W., and M. F. Low. "Postwar scientific intelligence missions to Japan." Isis 84:527-537, 1993
  • Hu, H. "Toxic weapons, epidemiology and human rights." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Hu, H., et al. "The use of chemical weapons: conducting an investigation using survey epidemiology." JAMA 262:5, 1989
  • Hubner, J. "The hidden arms race." Sunday Magazine of the San Jose Mercury, April 15, 1984
  • Huxoll, D. L. "Don't ignore the cow in field investigations of chemical, biological or toxin warfare." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Huxsoll, D. L., et al. "Medicine in defense against biological warfare." JAMA 262:5, 1989

 

 

I to L

  • Ichord, R. H. "The deadly threat of Soviet chemical warfare." Readers Digest, Sept., 1979

  • Jacobson, J. A., and B. H. Rosenberg. "Biological defense research: Charting a safer course." JAMA 262:5, 1989
  • Johansson, K. R., and D. H. Ferris. "Photography of airborne particles during bacteriological plating operations." Journal of Infectious Diseases 78:238-252, 1946

  • Kadivar, H., and S. C. Adams. "Treatment of chemical and biological warfare injuries: Insights derived from the 1984 Iraqi attack on Majnoon Island." Military Medicine156:4, 1991
  • Kalven, J. "Yellow rain: The public evidence." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 38:5, 1982
  • Knudson, G. B. "Operation Desert Shield: Medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction." Military Medicine 156:4, 1991
  • Knudson, G. B. "Treatment of anthrax in man: History and current concepts." Military Medicine 151:2, 1986
  • Kucewicz, W. "Beyond 'yellow rain:' The threat of Soviet genetic engineering." Wall Street Journal April 23-May 18, 1984

  • Lang, H. K. ""Biological warfare still an issue." ADVANCE For Medical Professionals 3:41, 1991
  • Lang, W. "The role of international law in preventing military misuse of the biosciences and biotechnology." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Langmuir, A. D. "The potentialities of biological warfare against man: An epidemiological appraisal." Public Health Reports 66:13, 1951
  • Langmuir, A. D., and J. M. Andrews. "Biological warfare defense. 2. The Epidemic Intelligence Service of the Communicable Disease Center." American Journal of Public Health 42:3, 1952
  • Larson, C. A. "Ethnic weapons." Military Review, Nov., 1970
  • Lawrence, K. "The history of U. S. bio-chemical killers." Covert Action 17:5-7, 1982
  • Lederberg, J. "A treaty proposal on germ warfare." Washington Post Sept. 24, 1966
  • Lederberg, J. "Biological warfare and the extinction of man." Stanford M. D. 8:4, 1969
  • Lederberg, J. "Biological warfare: A global threat." American Scientist 59:195-197, 1971
  • Lederberg, J. "Our CBW facilities could help against pestilences." Washington Post March 7, 1970
  • Lederberg, J. "Swift biological advance can be bent to genocide." Washington Post Aug. 17, 1968
  • Lederberg, J. "The control of chemical and biological weapons." Stanford Journal ofInternational Studies 7: Spring, 1972
  • Lederberg, J. Statement to Conference of the Committee on Disarmament: read into Congressional Record Sept. 11, 1970.
  • Leitenberg, M. "Anthrax in Sverdlovsk: New pieces to the puzzle." Arms Control Today 22:3, 1992
  • Leitenberg, M. "Soviet activities related to biological weapons." Arms Control 12:4, 1992 (Note appended to reprint: "despite the date on the journal's cover [i.e., September, 1991], this appeared in April, 1992")
  • Levie, H. S. "Humanitarian restrictions on chemical and biological weapons." Universityof Toledo Law Review 13:4, 1982
  • Levinson, Macha. "Custom-made biological weapons." International Defense Review [citation unclear]
  • Long, M. B. "The inch that can destroy the world." Argosy, Dec. 1956
  • Lundin, S. J. "Global epidemiological surveillance: Of general concern, or a matter for the BWC?" Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992

 

M to Q

  • Manchee, R. J., et al. "Bacillus anthracis on Gruinard Island." Nature 294:254-55, 1981
  • Mann, J. "Libyan underground chemical site is reported." Los Angeles Times, March 8, 1991
  • Matossian, M. K. "Did mycotoxins play a role in bubonic plague epidemics?" Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29:2, 1986
  • Maykuth, A. "U.N. votes punishment of Iraq." Philadelphia Inquirer, April 4, 1991
  • McFadden, E. J. "The Second Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention: One step forward, many more to go." Stanford Journal of International Law 24:1, 1987
  • McGeorge, H. J. "Bugs, gas and missiles." Defense and Foreign Affairs May/June 1990
  • Merck, G. M. "Biological warfare." Report to the Secretary of War, 1946. (Later published, e.g., in The Military Surgeon, 98:237-42, 1946)
  • Meselson, M. "The Biological Weapons Convention and the Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979." FAS Public Interest Report 41:7, 1988
  • Meselson, M., et al. "Verification of biological and toxin weapons disarmament." [Draft Chapter for ​Pugwash Study on Verification Issues], 1989
  • Mikulak, R. "Review of the Diplomacy of Biological Disarmament." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Miller, J. "Biological weapons, literally older than Methuselah." New York Times, Sept. 19, 1998
  • Mollaret, H. H. "A contribution to the history of bacterial crime." Medecine et Maladies Infectieuse,1987 (original and translation)
  • Mollaret, H. H. "Heydrich's death: A special case of botulism." Medecine et Maladies Infectieuse, 1986 (original and translation)
  • Mollaret, H. H. "The biological weapon." Historia, N. D. (original and translation.)
  • Morse, S. S. "Epidemiologic surveillance for investigating chemical or biological warfare and for improving human health" Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Morton, H. E. "The role of the physician in defense against biological warfare." SouthDakota Journal of Medicine 15:455-58, 1962

  • Nass, M. "Can biological, toxin and chemical warfare be eliminated?" Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Nass, M. "The labyrinth of biological defense." PSR Quarterly 1:1, 1991
  • Nixon, R. M. Statement and subsequent remarks of the President, November 25, 1969
  • Nowicke, J. W., and M. Meselson. "Yellow rain: A palynological analysis." Nature 309:205-6, 1984


  • Orient, J. M. "Chemical and biological warfare: Should defenses be researched and deployed?" JAMA 262:5, 1989


  • Pady, S. M., and C. D. Kelly. "Use of silicones in aerobiology." Science 110:187, 1949
  • Parks, M. "Briton: Soviets won't vow not to sell arms to Iraq." Los Angeles Times, March 6, 1991
  • Parks, W. H. "Classification of chemical-biological warfare." University of Toledo LawReview 13:4, 1982
  • Phair, J. J. "The diagnostic laboratory in the civil defense for biological warfare." American Journal of Public Health 44:1, 1954
  • Piel, G. "BW." Life 21:118-30, 1946
  • Pike, R. M. "Laboratory-associated infections: Summary and analysis of 3921 cases." Health Laboratory Science 13:2, 1976
  • Piller, C. "Biological warfare and the new genetic technologies." Science for the People 17:3, 1985
  • Piller, C. "DNA - Key to biological warfare?" The Nation, Dec. 10, 1983
  • Piller, C. "Test site for germ warfare?" The Nation, Mar. 9, 1985
  • Pirages, D. "Galloping biotechnology: A new global malady?" Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Plotkin, S. A. "An epidemic of inhalation anthrax, the first in the twentieth century." American Journal of Medicine 29:6, 1960
  • Poupard, J., et al. "The use of smallpox as a biological weapon in the French and Indian War of 1763." ASM News 55:3, 1989
  • Powell, J. W. "A hidden chapter in history." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 37:8, 1981
  • Preston, Richard. "The bioweaponeers." The New Yorker March 9, 1998

R to S

 

  • Rassweiler, C. "What's so terrible about germ warfare?" [unidentified clipping, Vietnam-era.]
  • Reid, R. D. "Bacteria, bombs and bullets." Monthly Research Report of the Office ofNaval Research, May 1, 1949
  • Riezenstein, P. L. "Chemical and biological weapons: Recent legal developments may prove to be a turning point in arms control." Brooklyn Journal of International Law12:1, 1985
  • Roling, B. V. A. "A judge's view." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 37:8, 1981
  • Rosebury, T., and E. A. Kabat. "Bacterial warfare." Journal of Immunology 56:7-96, 1947
  • Rosebury, T., et al. "Disinfection of cloudes of meningopneumonitis and Psittacosis viruses with triethylene glycol vapor." Journal of Experimental Medicine 85:1, 1947
  • Rosenberg, B. H. "The politics of epidemiological surveillance." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Rosenberg, B. H. "Updating the biological weapons ban." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 43:40-43, 1987
  • Rothschild, J. H. "Germs and gas: The weapons nobody dares talk about." Harper'sMagazine 218:1309, 1959
  • Rubbo, S. D. "Chemical and biological warfare: The risks of Australian commitment." National U, May 12, 1969
  • Russell, A. M. "International relations theory, biotechnology and war." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Rutman, R. J. , and H. J. Disch "Commentary of articles by Charles F. Dasey and Thomas R. Dashiell on the biological defense research program." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990

  • Sapiro, M. E. "Investigating allegations of chemical or biological wafare: The Canadian contribution." The American Journal of International Law 80:678-82, 1986
  • Schechter, D. C. "Unorthodox Warfare." New York State Journal of Medicine, Nov, 1971
  • Seale, J. "AIDS virus infection: Prognosis and transmission." Journal of the RoyalSociety of Medicine 78:613-15, 1985
  • Seeley, T. D., et al. "Yellow Rain." Scientific American 253:3, 1985
  • Sidel, V. W. "Biological weapons research and physicians: Historical and ethical analysis." The PSR Quarterly 1:1, 1991
  • Sidel, V. W. "Weapons of mass destruction: The greatest threat to public health." JAMA 262:5, 1989
  • Smith, J. "Biological warfare developments." Jane's Intelligence Review 3:11, 1991
  • Smith, R. J. "Germ warfare program called safe, necessary." Washington Post May 13, 1988
  • Solf, W.A. "Protection of civilans against the effects of hostilities under customary international law and under Protocol 1." American University Journal of InternationalLaw and Policy 1:117, 1986

 

T to Z

  • Thompson, Mark. "Troops to get vaccines." Philadelphia Inquirer Dec. 29, 1990
  • Tigertt, W. D. "Defensive aspects of biological weapons use." Military Medicine 126:7, 1961
  • Tu, A. T. "Genetic engineering: Taking the bite out of snake venoms." NBC Defense andTechnology International 1:2, 1986
  • Tu, A. T. "Snake neurotoxins and necrotic toxins: Potential new agents." NBC Defenseand Technology International 1:2, 1986
  • Tucker, J. B. "Gene Wars." Foreign Policy, Winter 1984-1985


  • Ursano, R. J. "Combat stress in the chemical and biological warfare environment." Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 59:12, 1988


  • Van Courtland Moon, J. E "Pressing the limits: The challenge of the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation to chemical warfare policy." Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual 2:139-47, 1985
  • Van Courtland Moon, J. E. "Chemical weapons and deterrence: The World War II Experience" International Security 8:4, 1984
  • Van Ginneken, J. "Bacteriological warfare." Journal of Contemporary Asia 7:130-152, 1977


  • Wade, N. "Death at Sverdlovsk: A critical diagnosis." Science 209:1501-2, 1980
  • Wedum, A. G. "Defensive aspects of biological warfare in relation to the pharmaceutical industry." Paper presented to American Drug Manufacturer's Association, Homestead, VA, 1955
  • Westing, A. H. "The threat of biological warfare." Bioscience 35:10, 1985
  • Wheelis, M. L. "Strengthening biological weapons control through global epidemiological surveillance." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Wheelis, M. L. "The multiple functions of epidemiological surveillance: A response to Geissler, Lundin, Rosenberg and Woodall." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Wiener, S. L. "Strategies of biowarfare defense." Military Medicine, 152:1, 1987
  • Wilson, W. "Biological warfare defense. 1. Introductory remarks." American Journal ofPublic Health and the Nation's Health 42:3, 1952
  • Winokur, G. "The germ warfare statements: A synthesis of a method for the extortion of false confessions." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 122:1, 1955
  • Woodall, J. "Preparedness is nine-tenths of prevention." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Wright, S. "New designs for biological weapons." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 43: 1987
  • Wright, S. "The military and the new biology." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May 1985
  • Wright, S., and R. L. Sinheimer. "Recombinant DNA technology and biological warfare." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 39:9, 1983


  • Yannacone, V. J., Jr. "Chemical defoliation or chemical warfare?" University of Toledo Law Review 13:4, 1982


  • Zenova, N. "Urals bacteriological accident suspected in 1979." Literaturnaya Gazeta Aug. 22, 1990 [translated.]
  • Zilinskas, R. A. "Anthrax in Sverdlovsk?" Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 39:24-27, 1983
  • Zilinskas, R. A. "Recombinant DNA research and the international system." SouthernCalifornia Law Review 51:6, 1978
  • Zilinskas, R. A. "Review of Clouds of Secrecy." Politics and the Life Sciences 7:2, 1989
  • Zilinskas, R. L. "Biological warfare and the Third World." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Zilinskas, R. L. "Terrorism and biological weapons: Inevitable alliance?" Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 34:1, 1990
  • Zilinskas, R. L. "Transmutation by Cole." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Zoler, M. L. "Biochemical assault: Is there such a thing as preparedness?" Medical WorldNews, Oct. 28, 1985

Bibliographies on Biological Warfare

  • Anthrax in Communist Countries: A Report Bibliography the Army Medical Research and Development Command. Prepared by Defense Documentation Center [1975?]
  • Bernal Peace Library. Selected Bibliography on Biological and Chemical Warfare. N. D.
  • Bibliography on Anthrax. 3rd. Edition. U. S. Army Chemical Corps, 1960
  • Bibliography on Biological Warfare. Published by the Technical Library, Camp Detrick, 1953. With Supplement, 1957
  • Bibliography on Botulism and Clostridium botulinum. Published by the Technical Library, Camp Detrick, 1952
  • Bibliography on Chemical and Biological Warfare. I. Undated. II. Bibliography [arranged chronologically, 1928-1965]. III. List of Official Declarations, Resolutions, Treaties and Other Documents Relating to the Control of CBR Armaments. 1965
  • Bibliography on Chemical and Biological Warfare. Supplement for 1954-64…
  • Bibliography on Chemical and Biological Warfare. Supplement for 1965-66…
  • Collected Papers of Microbiological Research Establishment, Porton, England. Krickus, Richard, The Future of CW/BW Arms Control: Its Naval Implications. (unpublished paper). [1967?]
  • Microbiological Research Establishment, Porton, Salisbury. Abstracts of Published Work, 1964.
  • Microbiological Research Establishment, Porton, Salisbury. Abstracts of Published Work, 1965.
  • Microbiological Research Establishment, Porton, Salisbury. Abstracts of Published Work, 1966.
  • Microbiological Research Establishment, Porton, Salisbury. Abstracts of Published Work, 1967.
  • Scientific Publications, Ft. Detrick 1946-1972. Prepared by ENVIRO CONTROL, 1976. [note: The ASM Archives has a set of bound reprints of all papers described in this bibliography, which lists all papers in the open literature published by Ft. Detrick workers.]
  • Stewart, Alva W. Chemical Weapons: Their Use and Development: A Brief Checklist. Vance Bibliographies, 1987.
  • Summers, Phoebe W. Bibliography on Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE). USAMRIID, 1972
  • Technical Report Summaries: [bibliography prepared based on the following search terms: b. agents; bacteriological warfare; bioagent; biological agent; biological bombs; biological war; biological warfare; biological warfare agents; biowar; c. agents]. Prepared by the Defense Technical Information Center, 1989 [?]. Citations include abstract.
  • Wynne, E. Staten. Microbiologic Aspects of Tropical Sprue: An Annotated Bibliography. USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, 1970.

Books Related to Biological Warfare

A-B

  • Alibek, Ken. Biohazard. Dell Publishing, 1999  

  • Bryden, J. Deadly Allies: Canada’s Secret War, 1937-1947. McLelland & Stewart, Inc., 1990. UG 447.B78 1990

 

 

C-D

  • Chemical Corp Association. The Chemical Warfare Service in World War II. Reinhold Publishing Co., 1948 
  • Chemical Warfare Commission. Report of the Chemical warfare Commission, June 1985. U. S. Government Printing Office, 1985 
  • Chemical Weapons Convention Bulletin. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 
  • Cole, L. A. Clouds of secrecy. Rowan and Littlefield, 1988 
  • Committee on Biological Warfare. 1950 Program Guidance Report. Department of Defense, Research and Development Board, 1950 
  • Committee on Biological Warfare. 1950 Report of the Panel of the Programs. Department of Defense, Research and Development Board, 1950 
  • Comptroller General of the United States. Report to the Congress: Problems Associated with Converting Defense research Facilities to Meet Different Needs: The Case of Ft. Detrick. U. S. General Accounting Office, 1972 
  • Cookson, J., and J. Nottingham. A Survey of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Monthly Review Press, 1969
  • Covert, N. Cutting Edge: A History of Fort Detrick, Maryland, 1943-1993. Public Affairs Office, Ft. Detrick, 1993. UG 447.8.C68 1993  
  • Crichton, Michael. The Andromeda Strain. Alfred A. Knopf, 1972 
  • CW-BW Panel of the President’s Science Advisory Committee. Research Requirements for defense Against Biological Warfare. Draft, 1970


  • Directorate of Industrial Health and Safety. Occupational Laboratory Infections at Fort Detrick, 1943-1970: Statistical Summaries and Analyses, Published Case Reports. n.d. 
  • Douglas, S. R., A. Fleming, and L. Colebrook. Studies in Wound Infection. His Majesty’s Staionery Office, 1920. 

 

E-F

  • Ehrlich, A. H., and J. W. Birks, eds. Hidden Dangers: Environmental Consequences of Preparing for War. Sierra Book Club, 1990 

  • F. A. S. Working Group on Biological and Toxin Weapons Verification. Proposals for the Third review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention. Federation of American Scientists, 1990 
  • F. A. S. Working Group on Biological and Toxin Weapons Verification. Implementation of the proposals for a Verification Protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention. Federation of American Scientists, 1991 
  • Federal Civil Defense Administration. Health Services and Special Weapons defense. U. S. Government Printing Office, 1950 
  • Federal Civil Defense Administration. What You Should Know About BiologicalWarfare. U. S. Government Printing Office, 1951

G-H

  • Geissler, E. Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention by Confidence-BuildingMeasures. Oxford University Press, 1990 
  • Geissler, Erhard, and J. P. Woodall, eds. Control of Dual-Threat Agents: The Vaccines for Peace Programme. Oxford University Press, 1994 
  • Gizewski, P. Biological Weapons Control. Canadian Centre for Arms Control and Disarmament, 1987 
  • Graber, C.D. Laboratory Procedures in Diagnostic Medical Mycology. Third Army Medical Laboratory, 1948 

  • Hampton, F. O., et al., eds. The Allies and Arms Control. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992 
  • Hansen, Friedrich. Biologische Kriegsfuhrung in Dritten Reich. Campus Verlag, 1993 
  • Harp, Charles H., and A. G. Wedum. Comparison of Monkey and Man DuringAccidental Aerosol Challenge with N ©. Camp Detrick, 1955 
  • Harris, R., and J. Paxman. A Higher Form of Killing. Hill & Wang, 1982 
  • Hatch, T. F., and P. Gross. Pulmonary Deposition and Retention of Inhaled Aerosols. Academic Press, 1964 
  • Headquarters, Department of the Army. Tactics and Techniques of Chemical, Biological and radiological Warfare. Field Manual 3-5, 1958 
  • Headquarters, Department of the Army. Small Unit Procedures in Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare. Field Manual 21-40, 1958 
  • Headquarters, Department of the Army. Chemical and Biological Weapons Employment. Field Manual 3-10, 1962 
  • Headquarters, Department of the Army. Chemical Corps reference Handbook. Field Manual 3-8, 1963 
  • Headquarters, Department of the Army. NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) Defense. Field Manual 21-40, 1977 
  • Headquarters, Department of the Army. Soldier’s Handbook for Chemical and Biological operations and Nuclear Warfare. Field Manual 21-41, 1963 
  • Hersh, S. Chemical and Biological Warfare: America’s Hidden Arsenal. Anchor Books, 1969 
  • Hutchins, R. M., et al. Science, Scientists and Politics. Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, 1963 

I-J

  • Industrial Fabrics Association International. Fabrics for Chemical/ Biological Warfare. Conference Proceedings. The Association, 1982 

K-L

  • Kerley, G. Military Research at the University of Wisconsin on the Topic of BiologicalToxins. Wisconsin Peace Conversion Project, 1982 
  • Kingsolver, C. H., C. E. Peet, and J. F. Underwood. Measurement of the Epidemiologic Potential of Wheat Stem Rust: St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, 1954-57. Pennsylvania State University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 854, August, 1984 
  • Kingsolver, C. H., T. H. Barksdale and M. A. Marchetti. Rice Blast Epidemiology. Pennsylvania State University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 853, September, 1984 
  • Komarov, F. I., et al. USSR: Life Sciences Military Medical Training. 1990 
  • Krepon, M., and D. Caldwell, eds. The Politics of Arms Control Treaty Ratification. St. Martin’s Press, 1991 

  • Langmuir, A. D. The Potentialities of Biological Warfare Against Man. U. S. Government Printing Office, 1951 
  • Leahy, W. D. I Was There. Whittlesey House, 1979 
  • Leise, J. M., et al. A Manual for the Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms. Part I: Bacteria, Fungi, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Determinants. N. D. 
  • Liepmann, Heinz. Poison in the Air. Translated from the German by Eden and Cedar Paul. J. B. Lippincott, 1937. UG 447.L52  
  • Livingstone, N. C., and J. D. Douglas. CBW: The Poor Man’s Atomic Bomb. Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, 1984 
  • Lundin, S. J. Views on Possible Verification Measures for the Biological Weapons Conventon. Oxford University Press, 1991 
  • Lynn, R. J., and H. E. Morton. Infectivity of Bacillus anthracis. University of Pennsylvania, 1954 

M-N

  • McCarthy, Richard D. The Ultimate Folly: War by Pestilence, Asphyxiation, and Defoliation. Alfred A. Knopf, 1970. UG 447.M233  
  • McDermott, J. The Killing Winds. Arbor House, 1987 
  • McDermott, W. Conference on Airborne Infection. Williams and Wilkins, 1961 
  • McIntosh, J. The Classification and Study of the Anaerobic Bacteria of War Wounds. His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1917 
  • Meselson, M. S. Symposium on Chemical and Biological Warfare. National Academy of sciences, 1969 
  • Miller, J., S. Engelberg, and W. Broad. Germs: Biological Weapons and America’s Secret War. Simon and Schuster, 2001. UG 447.8.M54 2001  
  • Moon, John. In the Shadow of Ypres: The Chemical Warfare Dilemma. Harrod Lecture Series, Volume X, 1988-89 
  • Murphy, S., et al. No Fire, No Thunder: The Threat of Chemical and Biological Weapons. Monthly Review Press, 1984 
  • N. R. C. Civil Defense Foods Advisory Committee. The Vulnerability of the Food Industries to Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Warfare
  • Agents. National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council, 1955 
  • Newman, B. M. Japan’s Secret Weapon. Current Publishing, 1944 

O-P

  • OPCW: The First Five Years. Symposium on the Establishment of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Under the Future Chemical Weapons Convention. Symposium Report, 1992 


  • Pearson, Graham S., and Malcolm Dando, eds. Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention: Key Ponits for the Fourth Review Conference 
  • Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, 1996 
  • Picardi, A., et al. Alternative Technologies for the Detoxification of Chemical Weapon: An Information Document. Greenpeace International, 1991 
  • Piller, C., and K. R. Yamamoto. Gene Wars: Military Control Over the New Genetic Technologies. Beach Tree Books, 1988 
  • Preschel, C. A., et al. “Phase report on production of microorganisms in vessels on solid media.” Report to U. S. Army Biological Warfare Laboratories, 1957 

 

 

Q-R

  • Regis, Ed. The Biology of Doom: The History of America’s Secret Germ Warfare Project. Henry Holt, 2000. UG 447.8.R44 2000  
  • Roberts, Brad, ed. Biological Weapons: Weapons of the Future?Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1993. UG 447.8.B57 1993  
  • Robinson, J. P. Chemical and Biological Warfare Developments: 1985. Oxford University Press, 1986 
  • Rosebury, T. Experimental Airborne Infection. Williams and Wilkins, 1947 
  • Rosebury, T. Peace or Pestilence: Biological Warfare and How to Avoid It. Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill, 1949. UG 447.R6  
  • Rothschild, J. H. Tomorrow’s Weapons. McGraw-Hill, 1964. UG 447.R7  

S-T

  • Scientific and Technical Advisory Section. Report on Scientific Intelligence Survey in Japan. Volume V: Biological Warfare. General Headquarters, U. S. Armed Forces, Pacific, 1945 
  • Scott, A. The Anthrax Mutation. Pyramid Publications, 1976 
  • Seaman, V. An Account of the Introduction of Vaccination or Kine-Pock Inoculation in New York. MS, N. D. 
  • Sherman, J. L. “Biological Armor: Protection for the soldier against the stresses of war.” Typescript, N. D. 
  • Sims, N. A. Biological and Toxin Weapons: Issues in the 1986 Review. Council for Arms Control, 1986 
  • Sims, N. A. The Diplomacy of Biological Disarmament. St. Martin’s Press, 1988 
  • SIPRI. SIPRI Yearbook 1990: World Armaments and Disarmament. Oxford University Press, 1990 
  • SIPRI. SIPRI Yearbook 1991: World Armaments and Disarmament. Oxford University Press, 1991 
  • SIPRI. SIPRI Yearbook 1992: World Armaments and Disarmament. Oxford University Press, 1992 
  • Smith, P. F. Infectivity of Pasteurella tularensis. University of Pennsylvanis, 1954 
  • Steiner, P. E. Disease in the Civil War. Charles C. Thomas, 1968 
  • Storella, M. C. Poisoning Arms Control: The Soviet Union and Chemical/Biological Weapons. Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, 1984 
  • Swigart, R. Vector. Bluejay Books, 1986 

  • Thomas, A. V. W., and A. Thomas. Legal Limits on the Use of Chemical and BiologicalWeapons. Southern Methodist University Press, 1970 
  • Thompson, A. Report on Japanese Biological Warfare (BW) Activities. Camp Detrick, 1946 
  • Triplett, W. Flowering of the Bamboo. Woodbine House, 1985 
  • Tsuneishi, K. The Germ Warfare Unit that Disappeared: The Kwangtung Army’s 731st Unit. Kai-Mei-Sha, 1982 
  • Tsuneishi, K., and T. Asano. The Bacteriological Warfare Unit and the Suicide of Two Physicians. Shinco-Sha Publishing, 1982 

U-Z

  • United Nations. Chemical and Bacteriological (Biological) Weapons and the Effects of their Possible Use. U. N. No. E. 69. I. 24, 1969. UG 447.U42  
  • United Nations. Chemical and Bacteriological (Biological) Weapons and the Effects of their Possible Use. U. N. No. E. 69. I. 24, 1970. UG 447.U44  
  • U. S. Congress. Hearing Before the senate Governmental Affairs Committee and its Permanent Subcommittee on Germ Wars, Biological Weapons
  • Proliferation and the New Genetics. 1989 
  • U. S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Technology Against Terrorism: Structuring Security. 1992 
  • U. S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. Technology Against terrorism: The Federal Effort. 1991 
  • U. S. Department of the Army. The Biological Defense Safety Program. Army Regulation 385-BIO. Draft. 1991 
  • U. S. Department of the Army. U. S. Army Activity in the U. S. Biological Warfare Programs. 2 vols. 1977 
  • U. S. General Accounting Office. Biological Warfare: Role of the Salk Institute in Army’s Research Program. 1991 
  • U. S. General Accounting Office. Biological warfare: Better Controls in DOD’s Research Could Prevent Unneeded Expenditures. 1990

  • Van Courtland Moon, J. E. “In the shadow of Ypres: The chemical warfare dilemma: 1915-1988” Harrod Lecture Series 10, 1989 


  • War Wounds Committee, Medical Research Council. Notes on Gas Gangrene: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1943 
  • Williams, R. T., ed. The Biochemical Reactions of Chemical Warfare Agents. Cambridge Universlty Press, 1948 
  • World Health Organization Group of Consultants. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons. WHO, 1970

Ft. Detrick Materials: Reports

  • Anonymous. Characteristics of Some B. W. Agents for Plants. Special Report No. 2. 1944

  • Safety Division. Detection of Biological Warfare Agents. Special Report No. 58, 1946

  • Contributions from Special Projects Division, Chemical Warfare Service, Camp Detrick, Maryland. Special issue of Botanical Gazette 107, 1946.

  • Ellington, H. V. Accidental Laboratory Infections at a Biological Warfare Station. Special Report 72, 1946

  • Decker, H. M., et al. Large-volume Air Samplers for Collecting and Concentrating Microorganisms. Technical Memorandum 172, 1969

  • Anonymous. Medical Defense Aspect of Biological Agents. Project No. 1B662706A096, 1970

  • Beisel, W. R. Food Poisoning. Project 871 BA 150 DA 0G3810, 1983

  • Wedum, A. G., and R. H. Kruse. Assessment of Risk of Human Infection in the Microbiological Laboratory. Miscellaneous Publication 30, 2nd. Edition, 1969

  • Pyne, F. W. Analysis and Report Concerning Potential Uses for Building 470, Fort Detrick. 1982

  • Biological Defense Research program: Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. USAMRDC, 1988

  • Amended FY 1988/89 Biennial Budget Program Element Descriptive Summaries. (USAMRDC), 1988.

Legal Materials - Biological Warfare

  • Nevin v. United States:
    1. Motion to Dismiss, or in the Alternative, for Summary Judgment, 1979
    2. Trial Brief on Behalf of United States of America, 1981
    3. Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Justice, 1981
  • H. R. 237: "Biological Weapons Act of 1989"
  • Communication from the President of the United States: "His Notification of His Declaration of a National Emergency With Respect to Chemical and Biological Weapons…" 1991
  • Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, 1991:
    1. Draft Final Declaration
    2. Draft Annex to Final Declaration on Confidence Building Measures

ASM and Biological Warfare: A Brief Chronology

13 April, 1942:  The ASM's "War Committee on Bacteriology" is appointed by President Selman Waksman.

See Newsletter of the SAB (NLSAB) 8:2, p. 2: "The duties of the Committee will be threefold: 1) It will act as a clearinghouse for research in the fields of Medical, Industrial and Agricultural Bacteriology, as well as in General Microbiology, pertaining to problems of particular importance in prosecution of the war. 2) It will help to coordinate the activities of various Societies, Committees, Government and Municipal organizations, interested in the many aspects of Bacteriology. 3) It will be prepared to advise government agencies, industrial organizations and other duly credited groups requiring information regarding any branch of Bacteriology and Microbiology, especially on problems related to the war."

The only reference to BW is in a report from Oct. 1943: "On the basis of recommendations made by members of the Committee and by other members of the Society, a program of activities was drawn up to cover the following fields:… 9) [of 9] Bacteriological warfare and the effect of warfare upon essential bacterial processes (gas warfare and soil bacteria)."

In fact, the majority of the Committee's activities had to do with the status of bacteriology as a science, and with the professional status of bacteriologists in regard to the war effort. There may be seeds here of questions regarding certification, which became more overt in the late 40s, and led to the Academy in 1955.

   

15 May, 1947:  A resolution was introduced from the floor of the General Business Meeting, calling for the international control of biological weapons. This was referred to an ad hoc committee to see if it should be released as coming from the Society; there appears to have been no further action.

"Resolution: Whereas the advances of science and technology have produced weapons of destruction, of which biological warfare is one, which in our professional judgment endanger the survival of modern civilization, and whereas we believe that biological warfare does not lend itself even to the degree of control that atomic warfare does. Our conclusion is that every possible effort should be directed toward building up a system of world-wide cooperation through the United Nations to ensure the world against war. (Signed)

R. Y. Stanier

S. E. Luria

T. E. Anderson

Stuart Mudd

C.-E. A. Winslow"

The Committee appointed to look into this matter consisted of J. Howard Mueller (Chairman), Walter Nungester, Stuart Mudd, with President Thomas Francis, Jr. and Secretary Leland Parr ex officio.

[July, 1947:  4th International Congress of Microbiology passes a resolution condemning biological warfare:

"The Fourth International Congress for Microbiology joins the International Society of Cell Biology in condemning in the strongest possible terms all forms of biological warfare. The Congress considers such barbaric methods as absolutely unworthy of any civilized community and trusts that all Microbiologists throughout the world will do everything in their power to prevent their exploitation."]

April, 1951:  Ad Hoc Committee on Biological Warfare formed.

May, 1951:  This committee reports as "Committee on Information Concerning Civil Defense against Biological Warfare." They also publish a resolution in the Aug., 1951 NLSAB.

From appointment letter from President Nungester: "It is hoped that this committee aided by their consultant [one member was not a member of SAB] will compile a list of questions answers for which seem necessary if bacteriologists throughout the country are to act intelligently in doing their share in the Civilian Defense Program."Their resolution, (NLSAB 17:3, p. 2):

Whereas it has been reported by official government sources that biological warfare might be used and might be an effective means of warfare, and

Whereas members of this Society are being extensively consulted by persons concerned with civil defense seeking specific information on which to base their plans, and

Whereas members of this Society have little detailed information of use in meeting these requests, and

Whereas official published information released up to the present time has been of a more general nature than would be most useful to bacteriologists in meeting these requests for aid in civil defense planning

Therefore, be it resolved that we express the hope that the Civil Defense Administration will make available in the near future such specific technical information as may be properly released, in order to enable bacteriologists and other technical personnel to meet their community responsibilities relative to civilian defense."

The report (8-IE, Folder 2) offers more specifics regarding the constituencies and questions involved.

8 June, 1952:  ASM officials begin to prepare a response to a published letter from M. Frederic Joliot-Curie, who accused the U.S. of using biological weapons in Korea.

Joliot-Curie (1900-1958) is President of the World Council of Peace; his accusation is based on information from the President of the Chinese Committee for the Defense of Peace. It is unclear whether the response was ever sent, or even composed. However, the correspondence includes some thoughtful discussions among Henry Scherp, Richard Donovick and Gail Dack on the whole issue of some sort of Society statement, or the holding of a symposium at the next meeting. Of additional interest in this context is a letter (allegedly) from members of the Polish Microbiological Society to Buchanan and Werkman at Iowa State, and the reply from them. This file also contains a printed reply by Joliot-Curie to a Warren Austin, defending his original accusation. All in 8-IE, Folder 2

 

1955:  Advisory Committee to the Chemical Corps (Ft. Detrick) established. (The name of this committee changes frequently over the years, as the structure of command at Ft. Detrick changes.) 

Council Minutes, May 8, 1955: "President Halvorson presented a request, from the Chemical Corp of the Army, that a committee be appointed by the Society to advise the Chemical Corp on microbiological questions. The American Chemical Society has appointed such an advisory committee to the mutual satisfaction and benefit of both the A.C.S. and the armed forces." The committee's reports indicate primarily that they met at Ft. Detrick, spoke with commanders and scientists regarding "problems, " and made recommendations. Perhaps because members required a security clearance, the specifics of their activities were not made available to the general SAB membership. It is apparent, however, that at least part of their advice had to do with the professional status and problems of Ft. Detrick scientists.

By 1967, there is a bit if defensiveness detectable: see the somewhat lengthy report in ASM News 33:3, p. 20-21. A one-sentence paragraph reads: "The committee has no responsibilities regarding the moral, political, or military aspects of BW."

7 April, 1967:  Northern California Branch requests information on why the Ft. Detrick committee exists, and what are its purposes.

The apparent precipitating factor here is an article by one Elinor Langer (no citation offered) titled "Chemical and Biological Warfare: The Research Program." See Northern California Branch Newsletters for March, October and November of 1967. There was apparently a special meeting of the Branch, with representatives from the national Society.

May, 1967:  A motion from the floor at the Annual Business Meeting to disband the Ft. Detrick Advisory Committee was defeated, twice.

Copy of the motion is in 8-IA, Folder 1. It was sponsored "by a group of ASM members." Contact person was Dr. I. Smith, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx. Discussion at the Annual Business Meeting is summarized in some detail in ASM News 33:3, p. 16.

15 March, 1968:  The Advisory Committee to Ft. Detrick recommends that the committee be dissolved. They cite their lack of influence with the command, not ethical or moral grounds.

The main complaints are that the committee meets too infrequently to be an effective technical advisory panel, and that Army Department reorganization removed the chance for the Committee to have real influence because it no longer reported directly to the Chief Chemical Officer. "We feel that our Committee (and thus our Society) is now in the uncomfortable position of being expected to furnish technical advice it cannot give and suspected of playing a role in governmental policy it does not have." The suggestion is made that the Detrick Technical Director work to establish a panel of non-governmental scientific consultants that will be able to work more effectively than the Committee. The point is made that such a panel would have no official connection to the Society, although many of its members would also belong to SAB.

The second major proposal of the report is the formation of an SAB Committee on Public Policy. [A Public Affairs Committee was appointed in 1973; the Public and Scientific Affairs Board was established in 1979]

4 May, 1968:  Dissolution of the Ft. Detrick Advisory Committee is approved by the CPC. The decision is sustained by the full Council the next day.

President Luria mentions the dissolution in his Presidential Address, and it makes the newspapers; also Science, May 24.

8 May, 1968:  Under urging from Dr. Merrill Snyder, the Business meeting votes that the Advisory Committee should be reinstated.

Snyder memorandum is in many locations in the Archives, e.g., 8-IA, Folder 1, which also contains verbatim transcript of discussion at the meeting. Of course, the Business Meeting doesn't have the authority to do anything other than make a recommendation to Council

1 October, 1968:  Mail vote of the full Council upholds the dissolution.

 

April, 1970:  Council approves statement endorsing President Nixon's ending of US BW Research.

J. Roger Porter and Salvador Luria were to be ASM representatives to the Biological Warfare Colloquium at the X International Congress of Microbiology. The statement to be made by themon behalf of the Society follows: "The Council of the Society affirms that the health of science is enhanced by non-secret research and free movement of scientists. Furthermore, the Council affirms support of President Nixon's action on November 25, 1969 and February 14, 1970 to end our involvement in the production and use of biological weapons. Because of our concern for humanitarian application of microbiological science we urge that all nations convert existing offensive biological warfare facilities to peaceful uses."

 

December, 1970:  Resolution on Biological Warfare adopted by the X International Congress is accepted by CPC.

This resolution is appended to the rather lengthy report of Porter and Luria. See ASM News 37:2, 1971, p. 16-17. No official action is taken on this resolution at the 1971 Council/CPC meeting.

May, 1978:  Policy on social, moral and political issues is adopted by Council.

Motivated primarily by non-BW controversies (plight of Soviet scientists, boycotting, for purposes of ASM meetings, states which have not ratified ERA, etc.), President Rasmussen introduces a proposed policy governing the Society's approach to these issues. After considerable discussion, the following resolution is passed: "Recognizing the objectives of the Society as prescribed in the ASM Constitution and the legal obligation of the elected officers, the CPC, and Council in directing the Society in accordance with these objectives, the following principle is established for guidance in dealing with various social, moral, and political issues.It shall be the position of the Society to act only on those issues in which microbiology is a major component, or where the knowledge of microbiology is important in reaching a sound decision."See Minutes (ASM News 44:8, 1978, p. 404), article by officers (ASM News 44:9, 469-71) and letter from Lawrence Sturman (ASM News 45:1, 1979, 14-17)

1985-87:  1970 Resolution on BW reaffirmed.   

March, 1985: At the PSAB meeting, Harlyn Halvorson reports that ASM has been asked by a member from Tulane for its position on BW. Halvorson agrees to work with AAM ChairWilliam Hausler to develop a group to review this The draft statement offered in March, 1986 essentially affirms the 1970 resolution. See also Halvorson's response to a letter to the editor, ASM News 53:3, 1987, p. 121

1988-:  BW becomes topic at meetings.   

During this period, the general topic of BW is addressed at a number of ASM meetings: 

  • 1988 GM: Roundtable: "Defense-Related Biological Research."
  • 1991: Conference at UMBC: The Microbiologist and Biological Defense Research: Ethics, Politics and Security."
  • 1991 ICAAC: Symposium: "Biological Warfare."
  • 1992 GM: President's Forum: "Biological Warfare: An Old Problem - Future Concerns."

 

May, 1993:  Council approves "Scientific Principles to Guide Biological Weapons Verification."

Document presented by PSAB Chair Ken Berns. Copy in 6-IIA, Folder 6, 1993. See also letter from Nancy Connell, with reply from Berns, ASM News 60:9, 1994, p. 455

 

December, 1994:  PSAB Task Force on BW established.

Reports are in 1996-2001 PSAB agenda packs, 6-IIA, Folder 2. See also Public Affairs reports in ASM News, as well as various articles there: in the years following the Gulf War, BW becomes a regular topic.

 

2001:  Society provides access to online resources concerning Bio Warfare. 

Click here for current online resources:  Biosecurity

2003:  ASM Holds First Annual Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting.

The American Society for Microbiology launched the annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting as a forum for the discussion of new data from the research of microbiological sciences related to biodefense and bioterrorism, the latest information on preventative modalities, therapeutics, and clinical diagnoses related to biothreat agents, and the most recent trends in the management and planning of biodefense programstopic.  Click Here for additional information: ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting - Dates and Locations

 

Biosecurity

September 25, 2014 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences DURC 
On September 24 the United States Government issued the final US Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC. The Office of Public Affairs sent a notice to ASM members about the Oversight document.

August 29, 2013 Revised NIH Policy: Mitigating Risks of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC)
The NIH published its revised policy on “Mitigating Risks of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC).” The notice reflects the federal government’s 2012 policy for the oversight of life sciences DURC, which is defined as “research that, based on current understanding, can be reasonably anticipated to provide knowledge, information, products, or technologies that could be directly misapplied to pose a significant threat with broad potential consequences to public health and safety, agricultural crops and other plants, animals, the environment, materiel, or national security.” Mitigation plans will be required for projects determined to be DURC, based on an administrative review.

April 5, 2013 - Summary of Recent Dual Use/Biosafety Research Policies
The ASM has compiled a summary of recent Dual Use/Biosafety Research Policy responses.

March 27, 2013 - ASM Comments on Dual Use Research Policy
ASM sent comments to the Office of Science and Technology Policy regarding the February 22, 2013 United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern

March 25, 2013 - ASM Comments on NIH Recombinant DNA Molecules Guidelines
The ASM sent comments to the NIH's Office of Biotechnology Activities regarding changes to the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules.

February 21, 2013 - U.S. Government Releases Proposed Policy for Dual Use Research of Concern
The Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) released for public review and comment the proposed policy for institutional oversight of life sciences dual use research of concern.

December 14, 2012 - ASM Comments on Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin from the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage
The ASM submitted comments in response to the Federal Register Notice, "Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin from the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage."

October 17, 2012 - CDC Requests Comments Concerning Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published a notice in today’s Federal Register announcing the opening of a docket to obtain information and comments from the public to questions concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage, and their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety.

October 9, 2012 - DHHS and APHIS Revised Select Agent Final Rules Published
The DHHS and APHIS published regulatory changes to the Select Agent and Toxin rules in the October 5, 2012 Federal Register.

April 26, 2012 - National Select Agent Registry Website Change of Address
On May 1, 2012, the http://www.selectagent.gov web address will no longer be available and its presence will be eliminated from the World Wide Web.  Please remove or update any personal links, bookmarks or favorites you may have saved for this site.  To access the Federal Select Agent Program, you will need to use the following website link http://www.selectagents.gov.

April 19, 2012 - Dual Use Research of Concern Update
Congressman Jim Sensenbrenner released a response from Dr. Holdren, Director of the Office of Science and Technology policy regarding the Administration’s safeguards for dual use research, in response to his concerns that the current ad hoc approach was inadequate to balance the priorities of national security and the free flow of academic ideas. The link above contains both Rep. Sensenbrenner's original letter and Dr. Holdren's response.

March 30, 2012 - Now Available: US Government Issues Policy on Oversight of Life Science Dual Use Research of Concern 
The purpose of this Policy is to establish regular review of United States Government funded or conducted research with certain high-consequence pathogens and toxins for its potential to be dual use research of concern (DURC) in order to: (a) mitigate risks where appropriate; and (b) collect information needed to inform the development of an updated policy, as needed, for the oversight of DURC. The fundamental aim of this oversight is to preserve the benefits of life sciences research while minimizing the risk of misuse of the knowledge, information, products, or technologies provided by such research.

December 1, 2011 - ASM Comments on Proposed Changes to the CDC List of Biological Agents and Toxins
The ASM sent comments to the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) on the October 3 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking which requested input on the proposed changes to the DHHS list of biological agents and toxins that have potential as severe threats to public health and safety.

December 1, 2011 - ASM Comments on Proposed Changes to the APHIS List of Biological Agents and Toxins
The ASM sent comments to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) on the October 3 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking which requested input on the proposed changes to the USDA list of biological agents and toxins that have potential as severe threats to public health and safety.

October 3, 2011 - CDC and APHIS Release Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List
In the Federal Register, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) have published the Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List. 

June 14, 2011 - Federal Experts Security Advisory Panel Releases Recommendations on Select Agents and Toxins The Federal Experts Security Advisory Panel (FESAP) released its recommendations concerning the Select Agent Program. 

August 31, 2010 - ASM Invited to Testify before Federal Biosecurity Panel
The ASM Public and Scientific Affairs Board was invited to present comments on August 31 at the meeting of the Federal Experts Security Advisory Panel (FESAP).

August 30, 2010 - ASM Comments on the Proposed Changes to the APHIS List of Select Agents and Toxins
The ASM sent comments to APHIS on the Federal Register notice, "Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List; Reorganization of the Select Agent and Toxin List."

August 19, 2010 - ASM Comments on the Changes to the HHS List of Select Agents and Toxins
The ASM sent comments to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention responding to the July 21, 2010 Federal Register Notice, "Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List."

July 7, 2010 - President's Executive Order on Optimizing the Security of Biological Agents and Toxins in the United States 
On July 2, the President  released an Executive Order on Optimizing the Security of Biological Agents and Toxins in the United States.  The  Executive Order directs federal agencies to institute changes in the current implementation of the Select Agent Program (SAP) and Regulations (SAR) within their existing statutory authorities. 

September 8, 2009 - ASM Comments on the Proposed Addition of SARS-CoV to the List of Select Agents and Toxin
ASM commented on the proposal to add SARS associated Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) to the list of HHS select agents and toxins, published in the July 13, 2009, Federal Register, Vo. 74, No. 132.

December 19, 2005 - ASM Comments on Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins--Reconstructed Replication Competent Forms of the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus Containing Any Portion of the Coding Regions of All Eight Gene Segments
ASM commented on the interim final rule published in the October 20, 2005 Federal Registered on the reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segments.

May 10, 2009 -Meeting of the Working Group on Strengthening the Biosecurity of the United States

September 9, 2005 - Survey for Determining the Location, Capacity, and Status of Existing and Operating BSL-3 Laboratory Facilities within the United States 
In October 2004, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), in partnership with ASM, conducted a survey of academic, biotechnology, and pharmaceutical--but not federal--entities in the United States regarding the location, capacity, and status of domestic laboratories with biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) containment facilities and equipment. BSL-3 containment is used in clinical, diagnostic, teaching, research, and production facilities in which work is done with microbial agents that may cause serious or lethal disease.  

ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting - Dates and Locations

The American Society for Microbiology sponsors the annual ASM Biothreats Meeting (formerly known as ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting) as a forum for the discussion of new data from the research of microbiological sciences related to biodefense and bioterrorism, the latest information on preventative modalities, therapeutics, and clinical diagnoses related to biothreat agents, and the most recent trends in the management and planning of biodefense programs.  A list of meeting dates and locations is below.    

For information on the Center for the History of Microbiology/ASM Archives Biological Warfare Collection, click here: Biological Warfare Collection or contact the Archivist, Jeff Karr

**meeting name changed to "ASM Biothreats" in 2017


2018

The 2018 ASM Biothreats Meeting was held

February 12-14, 2018 in Baltimore, MD

 

2017

The 2017 ASM Biothreats Meeting** was held

February 6–8, 2017 in Washington, DC

 

2016

The 14th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 8-10, 2016 in Arlington, VA

2015

The 13th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 9-11, 2015 in Washington, DC

2014

The 12th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

January 27-29, 2014 in Washington, DC

2013

The 11th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 25-27, 2013 in Washington, DC

2012

The 10th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 26-29, 2012 in Washington, DC

2011

The 9th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 6-9, 2011 in Washington, DC

2010

The 8th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 21-24, 2010 in Baltimore, MD

2009

The 7th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 22-25, 2009 in Baltimore, MD

2008

The 6th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 24-27, 2008 in Baltimore, MD

2007

The 5th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 27-March 2, 2007 in Washington, DC

2006

The 4th Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

February 15-18, 2006 in Washington, DC

2005

The 3rd Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

March 20-23, 2005 in Baltimore, MD

2004

The 2nd Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

March 7-10, 2004 in Baltimore, MD

2003

The 1st Annual ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting was held

March 9-12, 2003 in Baltimore, MD