Historical writing integrates personal analysis informed by research gathered from a wide range of sources. History papers use footnote citations as well as bibliographies to cite the sources used for interpreting and analyzing the past.
Students writing history papers must use footnotes to indicate the source of any direct quotation or the paraphrasing of another person's ideas or research. It is also important to use footnotes to indicate the source of any information that is not considered common knowledge. Footnotes (or endnotes) for history papers MUST follow formats outlined in The Chicago Manual of Style or Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.
Footnotes have four main purposes:
a) to cite the authority for statements in text--specific facts or opinions as well as exact quotations
b) to make cross-references
c) to make incidental comments on, to amplify, or to qualify a textual discussion--in short, to provide a place for material the writer deems worthwhile to include but that might interrupt the flow of thought if introduced into the text
d) to make acknowledgement.
The Difference Between Footnotes and Endnotes
Footnotes and Endnotes serve the same purpose and follow the same format. Only the location is different. Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page, on the same page as the referenced superscript number. Endnotes appear at the end of the narrative text. Endnotes are organized in numerical order from lowest to highest. Papers should use footnotes or endnotes, but never both. Pay close attention to order and format for footnotes and endnote citations:
examples of both can be found on the Turabian Quick Guide and the Chicago Manual of Style Quick Quide.
Research papers should always include a bibliography following Chicago Manual of Style or Turabian format. Bibliographies should include all primary and secondary sources consulted for a research paper; not just those included in footnotes.